In United States v. Dullum, No. 07-4502, March 13, 2009, the Court of Appeals affirmed the District Court’s ruling on five sentencing adjustments including; intended loss, vulnerable victim, abuse of trust, obstruction of justice, and acceptance of responsibility in this mail and bank fraud case. The most interesting fact about this case is that the defendant was a Secret Service Special Agent In Newark and an active member of his New Jersey church when the offenses were committed.
Dullum befriended two fellow church members who were recovering alcoholics/drug addicts, and were "a little slow", and volunteered to serve as their financial advisor. The Government maintained that it was in that capacity that Dullum forged one of the victim’s signatures on her will, did not inform the deceased’s family that he was acting as the executor of her estate, made misrepresentations about the value of the estate, transferred money form the estate’s bank account into his person account, and produced a fabricated $20,000 promissory note made out to him by the deceased.
The bank fraud aspect of the case involved a rental property at the Jersey shore owned by Dullum. He deposited two rent checks from the same renter into the estate account and then transferred the money to his personal account. (After depositing the first rent check in the estate bank account, Dullum falsely claimed he did not receive the check. He asked the renter to send a new check made payable to one of the two church members, who he falsely claimed was his wife.) Dullum made restitution for the two checks, after he was interviewed by the Secret Service and the bank froze his accounts.
Dullum argued that the District Court should have applied a four rather than a six level enhancement for loss because his bank fraud scheme (the rent checks) caused no loss. The Court held that Dullum intended to cause a loss for the full amount of the rent check. The Court rejected Dullum’s argument, that he is entitled to credit for repayment of the loss amount, because his repayment was after and not before the crime was uncovered. U.S.S.G. § 2B1.1 App. N.3(E)(I). The Court also rejected Dullum’s argument that the loss associated with the rent check should be reduced to zero because he had other funds in his bank accounts to offset the check.
Dullum argued that the two fellow church members were not vulnerable and were not direct victims. The Court, citing United States v. Monostra, 125 F.3d 183, 189 (3d Cir. 1997), held this enhancement is not limited to situations in which the vulnerable person is the direct victim of the offense of conviction, but that courts may look to all the conduct underlying an offense. The Court noted that the deceased victim was vulnerable, even if the direct victim was her estate. Further, there need only be one vulnerable victim in order for the two level enhancement to apply.
Dullum argued that his relationship with his two fellow church members was not the type of situation contemplated by the abuse of trust adjustment. The Court opined that through Dullum’s involvement with his church, he acted as a teacher, advisor and counselor to the two victims, and that he spent substantial time with them over three years as a trusted church figure of authority, counseling them with respect to their substance and alcohol abuse, and acting as their financial advisor. The Court found that Dullum’s position was a private position of trust and that the District Court did not err in applying the two level enhancement.
Dullum also objected to the two level enhancement for obstruction of justice. The Court held this adjustment was justified because during the investigation Dullum was interviewed three times, and provided five sworn statements, four of which contained lies. He also provided a forged promissory note during his third interview, and failed a polygraph examination. Only after repeated interviews, did he more truthfully discuss his actions in his fifth and final sworn statement.
Finally Dullum argued he should have received a three level, rather than one level, reduction for acceptance of responsibility. The Court determined Dullum was not entitled to the benefit of this adjustment because he refused to take full responsibility for his behavior, and, conduct resulting in an obstruction enhancement ordinarily indicates the defendant has not accepted responsibility for his criminal conduct. (U.S.S.C. § 3C1.1 App. N. 4). As a result, the Court determined the District Court was well within its discretion to grant a one level rather than three level reduction for acceptance of responsibility.