Skip to main content


Showing posts from June, 2008

Government's Use of Defendant's Former Lawyer as Confidential Informant Not "Outrageous"

In United States v. Hoffecker, No. 06-3190, (3d Cir. June 16, 2008), the Third Circuit issued a 103- page opinion primarily to address two issues: Did the District Court err in admitting the testimony of defendant’s former attorney and (2) was the prosecution time-barred?

Hoffecker and a co-defendant set up an investment company located in the Bahamas purportedly to sell commodities. The opinion details the elaborate telemarketing investment scam.

The Government employed Jack Field, Hoffecker’s one-time lawyer and friend, as an informant. Hoffecker argued this was so outrageous that it violated Due Process.

The opinion explains at length that the two had been out of contact for 3 years. When they met again, Field clearly and repeatedly stated he would not act as lawyer in this new deal and that he no longer practiced law. There was no retainer, and no legal fees were charged. During the course of the investigation, the Government, which was aware of the potential attorney-client relation…

Unpaid Taxes Found to Be “Proceeds” of Mail Fraud

In United States v. Yusef, No. 07-3308, (3d Cir. June 17, 2008), the Third Circuit considered a narrow issue: Whether unpaid taxes, which were unlawfully disguised and retained by means of the filing of false tax returns through the U.S. mail, are "proceeds" of mail fraud for purposes of sufficiently stating a money laundering offense under the federal, international money laundering statute, 18 U.S.C. § 1956(a)(2).

This was a government appeal from a pretrial order dismissing from the indictment various counts and allegations based on international money laundering.

The relevant statute requires businesses to file monthly reporting of gross receipts and to pay a 4% tax on those receipts. The mails were used for filing and payments.

The defendants here would collect the daily sales receipts, count the cash, and deposit, report and pay taxes only on a portion of the cash. From 1996 to 2001, tens of millions of dollars in cash was withheld in this manner.

The District Court found …

Third Circuit Examines United States v. Gunter In Light of Supeme Court's Sentencing Jurisprudence

In United States v. Gunter, No. 07-1291, (3d Cir. June 9, 2008), the Third Circuit discussed the impact of the Supreme Court's recent sentencing cases on its precedential opinion in United States v. Gunter, 462 F.3d 237 (3d Cir. 2006), which set forth the following three-step process that district courts must use for sentencing:

(1) Courts must continue to calculate a defendant's Guidelines sentence precisely as they would have before United States v. Booker, 543 U.S. 220 (2005).
(2) In doing so, they must formally rule on the motions of both parties and state on the record whether they are granting a departure and how that departure affects the Guidelines calculation, and take into account the Circuit's pre-Booker case law, which continues to have advisory force; and

(3) Finally, courts are required to exercise their discretion by considering the relevant 18 U.S.C. § 3553(a) factors in setting the sentence they impose regardless whether it varies from the sentence calculat…

Third Circuit clarifies appellate procedure and substantive sentencing rules (including an issue of first impression) in favor of defendants

In United States v. Miller, No. 06-5187 (3d Cir. June 2, 2008), Miller had been found guilty at trial of receiving and possessing child pornography, in violation of 18 U.S.C. §§ 2252A(a)(2) & 2252A(a)(5)(B), respectively. The District Court entered guilty verdicts on both counts, and sentenced Miller to concurrent 46-month prison terms. In calculating the advisory Sentencing Guidelines range, the District Court found that Miller had committed perjury during trial based on testimony about his adult pornography collection, and therefore applied a two-level enhancement for obstruction of justice.

On appeal, the Third Circuit vacated the District Court’s judgment and remanded for re-sentencing. Although the Court, in a 2-1 decision, found that the trial evidence was sufficient to uphold Miller’s conviction for receiving pornography, the Court unanimously accepted Miller’s argument that the Double Jeopardy Clause barred convictions for both receiving and possessing the same images (Mill…

Customs and Border Protection Officer's Haboring Conviction Reversed While Bribery Conviction Upheld

In United States v. Ozcelik, No. 06-4245 (3d Cir. May 27, 2008), the Court of Appeals decided, as a matter of first impression, what constitutes "shielding, harboring, and concealing an alien within the meaning of 8 U.S.C. § 1324. The defendant, Ozcelik, a naturalized US citizen originally from Turkey, was a Customs and Border Protection Officer in the Department of Homeland Security. A Turkish student whose visa expired was put into contact with Ozcelik by a mutual acquaintance and told that Ozcelik could help him remain in the United States. Ozcelik advised Tuncer that Ozcelik had contacts with the then INS and that for $2,300 something could be done "from the inside" that would extend his visa. Tuncer began cooperating with the Government and participated in recorded telephone conversations with Ozcelik regarding the resolution of his immigration problems in exchange for $2,300. A controlled meeting was also arranged where Tuncer gave the money to Ozcelik along with …